Buick Factories.

We all have had problems at one time or another about what a factory should be called. This is Don Bent’s interpretation concerning this dilemma. Maybe this will help set your mind at ease (a little) and help you understand that we can all have this same problem.  This is from Don’s Second Edition book “A Place Called Buick”. I use this as my field guide while researching  Buick history.

 

Powertrain Flint North Demolition 2011- 2012.

The last of factory #81 / #70. Building #86 is at the extreme left.  All photos from Leonard Thygesen between 2011- 2012. 

Foundry #70 1926 – 2011  Factory #70/#71a Hercules Diesel Engine Block & Head Casting Factory #70 Engine Block Pouring Buick WWII First Metal July 17,1942  Historic photo.

I find it sickening that these German named machines are tearing the factory apart that made parts to fight the Nazi’s during World War II.     Imagine all the still living and dead military personnel seeing what their children and great grand children have let happen to their country. This is what happens when we don’t learn from history. We are bound to repeat it.

A very small section of the north end of factory #81 / #70 is all that is left.

Factory #81 is just a small pile of rubble here. Factory #05 that turned out J-65 jet engine components during the Korean war is still intact in the left background. Factory #10 where all the Liberator cylinder heads were cast during World War II is still intact in the right background.

This map shows the location of the 4 pictures shown above.

 

 

 

The cleared site where factory #81 once stood, which was originally foundry #70 before 1981. Nothing but rusting rails left to tell the tale.

The old magnetic hoist for the old Buick foundry #70 that was changed over to torque converter work in 1981.  At that time it was designated factory #81..

When you enlarge this photo you can see where a guy like me would have entered the building. I was a truck driver for most of my time at Buick. They made torque converters here during the factories waning years. This structure housed the magnetic hoist that was once used for bringing scrap metal into the foundry up until 1981. Leonard Thygesen said the large crane moving back and forth made the whole structure sway. This in turn caused the concrete footings to crack. He stated they had to repair those footings in the early 70’s.  Only this small section was left when Leonard took this photo.

This is where factories #81, #05 and #10  once stood. Just one lone shed is all that is left. This elevated photo was taken from the roof of the old Bell produce building.

This is a never before seen look at the south end of factory #81. This view was not possible when factory #31 was still standing. This was the Buick foundry #70 until 1981 and cast iron into engines for most of it’s life. Only the south-end is left standing at the time of this photo.

This is the main gate of factory #31 on Industrial Avenue (shown below) and was taken in the early 80’s. Check out that stylized script. You are facing east.  This is from Don Bent’s book “A Place Called Buick”. 

Factory #31 Front Hub Assembly Factory #31 During Construction Factory #31 Axle Line Crankshaft Work Buick North 1966 Overview Factory #31 2008

Facing south-east at the gate of factory #31 on Industrial Avenue.  

This is the south end of factory #31 as never before viewed  from Industrial Avenue facing south-east.

This map shows the location for the 7 photos shown above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portland Cement.

Kids from Flint spent many an hour around the ruins of these old cement works located between Silver lake and Lake Ponemah. My parents would not let me play here because of my age. While Swimming in Silver lake you were always reminded of the drop off which is sudden and steep. It was caused by the dredging around these lakes in the first half of the 20th century. The last time I was near here you could still see some of the walls standing. A popular bar is located on Ponemah now. I did get a chance to fill in on guitar there one night during a bands break.

A closeup of the panorama farther below. Silver lake was on the left just beyond the road.

 

Closeup of the panorama below. That is Ponemah on the right. 

Aetna Portland Cement Company. located on the southern edge of Genesee County. This was the glue that held the bricks together, that built the early factories.

 

Just Another Brick In The Wall.

Clio brick yard north of Flint. The photo just above this one is showing a one day output of bricks and is from the Buick 50th anniversary book put out in 1953. I’m not sure about the identity but it does show the early air drying method mentioned in the story below of the Sandstone Company.  There were brick making establishments all over the state and country at that time, because the raw materials could be found most anywhere. The first brick building in Flint  got it’s raw material very close to this site at the foot of Church Street, very near the banks of Thread creek. When I was younger you could see these depressions where the clay and sand had been removed only we did not know what they were for. By the way, the first brick building erected in Flint is believed to have been the old “Scotch Store” at the corner of  Second Avenue and North Saginaw Street according to the book “The Picture History Of Flint” by noted local historian Lawrence Gustin ,which even includes a later photo from that 1852 time period. It was a substantial three story building.

Grand Blanc brick yard very near the Flint Sandstone brick Company.

This article was in the Wolverine Citizen on July 24, 1909. I have read many such articles from this time period and unlike today people would keep the skulls and other bones on display even going as far as keeping a skull on their desk. Today the whole site would be shut down and sometimes even closed permanently, in many cases.

The new Buick factories used a lot of these sandstone bricks in their original factories. They were soft and you could easily scratch words into them. Salt used in the winter months was especially degrading on these old bricks. There were still plenty of these old buildings around the Buick complex right up until the end.

A 1916 history.

The 1922 Flint City Directory’s listing for the brick co. 

The arrow shows the entire area occupied by The Flint Sandstone  Brick co. in 1920. On the map you can see that they also had access across the street to the east even along Tobias Street. Ex Mayor Don Williamson runs a recycling facility there now. When I was young that was where we all took our scrap metal and turned it into money.

As you see in this current map Deming Road was later changed to south Grand Traverse St. This was done when the two were connected at the corner where I once lived on Ninth and Grand Traverse St.

 

 

 

The arrow points to the area that was occupied by the Flint Sandstone Brick Co. In the southwest of Flint. When it was in operation this was outside the city limits.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The caption says Sandlime but the sign on the building says Sandstone.

 

 

 

 

 

A piece of marble (top) from the facade of the main office at Buick on the corner of Industrial and Hamilton Avenues. They also used black granite for accent. The red tinged brick (bottom) is from the assembly plant #04 located just across the intersection from the main office.  The assembly plant was originally called the new large sheet metal plant for Buick just after World War II. This was the last factory my father would work in before he died in 1966.  Link:  

Factory #04 1947 

 

 

 

 

Leonard Thygesen who has recorded the demolition done at Buick and preserved it all on film  and photographs gave me these mementoes from the demolition. On the right is a brick from the assembly plant #04 built in 1946-1947. It was demolished in 2002. Go to the following link: 

Factory #04 Collage  The white marble on the left is from the Buick World Headquarters in Flint or building #01, some knew it as the Buick administration building  or the main office, some even called it The Ivory Tower or the Marble Palace. It opened in 1968 and closed completely in 2003.  Demolition took place between 2005- 2006.  Go to the following links: Buick world Headquarters at Flint Michigan  The last Headquarters In Flint, Michigan.   Go here to order from Leonard. Shown below is a piece of the black granite used for accentuating the white marble. This is from Leonard’s personal collection.

 

 

 

Foundry #70 1926 – 2011

The following are some views of the new (in 1926) Buick grey iron foundry.

 

 

 

During construction.

The 1953 announced addition to the Buick foundry. This would be designated #71-a.

 

All the photos above are from Don Bent’s book “A Place Called Buick”

Post World War II proposed additions (in red) for the grey iron foundry. Building 70 and 71 were connected in the mid 30’s.  North is at the left. 

 

Factory #70 when new. The inset photo is from Don Bent’s book “A Place Called Buick”.

This diagram shows the location of the switch engine shown in the photos below.

 

Switch engine at work on July 11, 1989. The truck in the foreground is on Division Street heading south-west at the north end of factory #81. That is factory #10 in the far background.

That is the spring plant #03 filling the background. The location is diagrammed below.  

 

 

Days of old.

 

Factory #81 as it was designated from 1981 to 2011.

 

Days gone by. The next three photos are from the Buick facebook site.

Here are the foundry buildings identified. The main buildings #70 and #71 were built between 1926-1927. Building #71-a connected  #70 and #71 in 1939. The lighter colored west addition made to #71-a was done in 1953. The safety store where everyone bought their shoes was located just where Division st. starts turning to the east, just under the structure connecting with #31. This addition was shaped at the north-end to follow the curve in Division Street. I never personally went in here myself other than the safety store.  If any of these designations are wrong let me know. This view is from 2005 when the factory was known as #81  torque converter plant at Buick. The support structure at the lower right numbered 97 was originally #21 and was the tool  grinding shop. It was still  #21 in 1980.  I’m not sure when that changed. The uses of these different areas are: #71 Cleaning room. The cleaning room is shown below with the two photos of engine blocks going down the line, #71-a was the core ovens, #70 was called the pouring loop and had line 1 & 2 making brake drums with 3, 4 and 5 doing the engine blocks. Area #72 was for sand storage and mixing sand. Keep in mind this would be information from the 60′ and 70’s. Area #73 was maintenance. Area #74 may be a dock. Area #70-b is the cupola area. Area #70-a was for  crane maintenance.  The office area was #69-c.  Cooling towers were at #69-a. The pattern shop was #69 and 2nd floor was the wood patterns with the first floor being the steel patterns.   Factory #70 core room.  

 Links:

 

Factory #70 Raw Casting

Factory #70 Before 1953

Factory #70 Core Room

Block Grinding In Factory #70

Factory #70 Engine Block Pouring

Factory #70 POTS

Factory #70

 

 

The following story of the V-6 engine returning to Buick is from the book “The Good Old Days At The Buick by Lynn Ruester…..  A quote from George Elges, who retired in 1981 as GM Group Vice President:  “I had a number of challenges facing me when I went to Buick, but the first big one was to find my office.  They had put  up the new building since I had been there, and I had quite a time finding it.  I hadn’t been on the job long when the energy crunch hit and the emphasis suddenly switched to small cars and fuel economy; Buick was in deep trouble.  We had big cars and big engines, and fuel economy was something we didn’t say much about.  Buick had tried a small V-6 engine a dozen or so years previously, and it didn’t work out.  Buick customers wanted big Buick’s.  When the demand suddenly shifted, we were left high and dry.  I had brought in Bob Burger as general sales manager, and even Burger couldn’t come up with any ideas to sell Buick’s.  The whole industry was in trouble because the Japanese were bringing in their small, fuel efficient cars and none of us could match them……..Well, all of us were trying to figure a way out of this problem.  We were going around the country, having meetings with our dealers, trying to hold their hands through this crisis, but we didn’t really have much to offer them.  They couldn’t sell our cars; they were having financial troubles, and so were we……..About this time I somehow got to thinking about the old Buick V-6.  I knew the engine because some years back I had bought a boat with the Buick V-6 engine.  It was a beautiful engine, and I just hadn’t heard much about it for years……..I called Don Taylor who was our production manager, and I asked him to quietly delve into what American Motors was doing with that engine.  Don did that and reported back that AMC was not using the engine, that they had mothballed the engine line and it was just sitting in Toledo…….I immediately called Ed Cole, and asked for permission to get in touch with American Motors so we could try to get it back.  Well, in Ed’s inimitable style, he said he would take over himself.  ‘I’ll handle this, George, at a higher level.  you can forget about it.’ ………As the story later came back to me, Cole got in touch with Cliff Studaker, who was our engine expert, and they chased down to Toledo.  What Ed tried to negotiate was having American Motors build the engine and sell it to us.  That wasn’t what I had in mind at all…….Thank goodness, those negotiations fell through.  American Motors wanted too much money to sell us the engines, so Cole just forgot about it, and that dumped the ball back in my lap.  On our own we pursued it and finally we struck a deal with American Motors to buy the line and bring it back to Flint…….I took that proposal to the GM Administration committee, and got the approval to go ahead.  That was one miracle, getting it past the committee.  The second miracle was when we discovered that the old foundations were still in place in our Engine plant.  Finding those foundations meant all we had to do was clean up the floor……..To finish that V-6 story, thanks to Buick people like Cliff Studaker, Bob Breeden, Don Taylor, Bernie Caine, and a host of others, we had V-6 engines in our 1975 models, a miraculous turnaround, and a real crisis situation for Buick was averted.  We were again able to build the cars our dealers wanted, and sales responded accordingly.”

 

Inspecting a fresh engine block. These foundry photos were sent to me from Leonard Thygesen and he received them  from an old foundry worker.  They were probably taken in the mid 70’s. Leonard said he helped install the V-6 engine line in factory #36 when it was brought back to Buick. 

1958 factory #70.

 

The bottom mold is called the drag. The light colored sand is the core.   

 

Making up cores for the Buick V6 at the Buick foundry.

 

General Motors 50th Anniversary.

These workers are machining differentials.  Link here for more.
After the trees were cut this became the Hamilton farm and it’s chief crop was hay. The story goes that the rabbit hunting was good in this area during the early years.
Hamilton Avenue got it’s name in honor of William Hamilton in June of 1900. William Hamilton died January 21, 1899. Mrs. Hamilton died July 5, 1904.  The platting of the Oak Park Subdivision was in 1900. Mrs. Minnie Loranger owned the Hamilton land that became the Flint Buick site. She was the Hamilton’s daughter.
Hulse sold this engine to the Harold Warp Pioneer Village in Minden, Nebraska. This is considered the oldest known Flint built engine in existence.  The all time oldest known to exist is in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC. and was built in Detroit.
Showing Buick as the matriarch of General Motors. 
Chevrolet assembly on Van Slyke Road in Flint, Michigan. This is where my 66 Chevy was built. It’s still assembling Chevrolet’s only now there trucks. This view is facing south. The V8 engine plant is right next door. The sheet metal plant is in the distance.
This was the factory #62 final line until 1963. Link here for more.
Probably Van Slyke assembly in Flint.
James Parkhill who became president of the Armstrong Spring factory in Flint is supposedly  the person who hand made the first set of springs for the first flint built Buick in 1904. he also built the first gasoline station (shown farther below)  in Flint where the old Durant hotel still stands today in downtown Flint. The Durant has now been completely remodeled as student housing for the downtown college. 

Flint assembly on Van Slyke Road.
Chevrolet sheet metal and frame plant on Bristol Road. The assembly and engine plant are in the background. The engine plant has been torn down and replaced by another engine plant. I went to night school in the original one working in the dynamometer room back in 1970. This view is facing north.
These factory buildings were located on east Carpenter Road north of the Buick site.
This is the original site of many Durant & Dort warehouse buildings which would later become the east Flint plant of the Dort Motor Company. After Dort vacated this site it was taken over by A.C. Spark Plug. And after A.C. it became a Delphi factory. Now it is a brown field site like so many others in Genesee county. That is Dort Highway running north and south in the foreground.
Link for Hamady.

Link : Chevrolet In Flint Michigan.

I worked here for some time in the early 70’s mostly on the 6 line. When I quit and went back to Buick I was hanging heads on the V8 line.
Saginaw Street is running north and south here in front of Fisher Body #1. Link here.

Link: Inside A.C.

My uncle Lawrence Royer worked here after World War II and retired from there in the 70’s.
Chevrolet factory #2 at the Chevy hole site.  

Link: Happy 100th Birthday Chevrolet.

Links: A.C. On Industrial Avenue and the Buick Bug. Charles Lindbergh over Flint 1927

This view is directly south. The rail marshaling yard in the far background borders east Reid Road. Link here for a 1942 view cutaway showing this factory producing the M-4 Sherman tank. After 1955 this factory produced parts for the Cadillac division. South Dort Highway is out of view to the far right. Saginaw Road is just out of sight at the left running parallel with the main office shown at left. 
I spent 25 years here.
Close to calling it Buick City. 

Link: Buick City In 1947.

That is I-75 freeway in the foreground running north and south. We are facing east towards Flint. The Chevrolet plant is out of sight at the right and Torrey Road is visible going east and west at the upper left.
I spend a lot of time down here doing research. Every kid in Flint visited here on school field trips.
This shows the location of Flint’s first gasoline station shown below.

The future site of the Durant Hotel is shown at the left and below. This is from Lawrence Gustin’s book “Picture History Of Flint. 

This is McFarlan park in 1885 on the north side of the flint river. Saginaw Street (old Saginaw trail) is at the right. Detroit Street (future MLK. Avenue) have recently been connected with Saginaw. This now is a much smaller (tiny) park and has Flint’s veterans names enshrined here  This is from the trade journal:  

Headlight flashes along the Grand Trunk railwayYou can view this site with just your browser but is best viewed with PDF.

  

This shows the park at it’s height. Detroit St. on left, Saginaw St. on right. McFarlan is spelled  wrong on this postcard from at least 1906.
That looks like a community center in the left background. The gasoline station would be at the right where the large billboard is shown. You can see a small section of a large billboard in the gasoline station photo shown farther above. This is from Lawrence Gustin’s book “Picture History Of Flint. 
A park is not yet in existence in this photo showing the first bridge being rebuilt. Detroit Street has not been cut through yet. This is from Lawrence Gustin’s book “Picture History Of Flint. 
Looking west across Saginaw Street on Second Avenue. Originally the avenues north of the Flint river were called streets. This is from Lawrence Gustin’s book “Picture History Of Flint. 
The origin for the name of the park. This is from Lawrence Gustin’s book “Picture History Of Flint. 
Buick is just out of sight at the upper left in this east view of downtown Flint.
Van Slyke assembly in Flint, Michigan. My car came down this line in September of 1965.

Kind of resembles “Back To The Bricks”, only the classic  cars were brand new.

This view is facing south-east from the north end of the park. Notice the pavilion in the far right background. The pool was also located there but is now gone. The pavilion is still there with an occasional band concert.

Hamilton Avenue in the Oak Park Industrial Complex. Link here.

Fisher body number 2 moved from the old Chevy in the hole site in 1947 when G.M. built the new assembly plant on Van Slyke. The Fisher plant was built attached to the assembly plant.

The Bristol Road plant.

Bristol Road plant.
I worked this job at Buick.

Waste treatment at the Ternstedt plant.

Armstrong Spring Company & Marvel Carburetor Co..

A 1907 map showing the layout of the factories in the Oak Park Industrial Complex . The Armstrong plant is at the lower right in the grouping. You will notice that the Imperial Wheel plant does not look quite right. It was probably under construction at the time this map was being compiled. I have always thought it was being built starting in 1904 but it may have been later judging by this map. This map supplied by Leonard Thygesen.
I found a couple of different patents that were filed under the name of the founder John  Belmer Armstrong after he was deceased. I figure these were initiated by his son Robert who was the one who brought the company to the United States from Guelph Ontario Canada where many early entrepreneurs in Flint had their  early training. One other notable would be William A. Patterson, the first large scale producer of carriages in Flint during the 19th century.  Go here for a comprehensive history of the Armstrong family.
This view is looking north at the south-end of the J.B. Armstrong spring plant. St. John Street is in the foreground (James P. Cole Blvd. today). One interesting date was given by Buick historian Don Bent in his book “A Place Called Buick” he says the first set of springs delivered to the Buick factory on Kearsley Street for the first Flint built Buick was on January 1, 1904. The story remembered by James Parkhill who succeeded Robert Armstrong as president of the Company said this. “They were hauled over in Bert Armstrong’s 1902 curved-dash Oldsmobile”. The very first automobile built in Flint was built by Judge Charles H. Wisner,  possibly as early as 1898. The carriage house which was his workshop was written about in The Detroit Journal of October 10, 1901 as being one of the best appointed machine shops in the state. I just so happened to be there the day they were moving it to it’s new home in Crossroads village near Flint, where it can still be seen today. I was skipping school that day. It was located at the southwest corner of east Court and Lapeer Street. I looked in the windows with the glass now removed and it was already elevated for moving. It was bright red with white trim as I recall. It was being moved to make way for the new business loop through Flint called the Buick & U.A.W. expressway or I-475 as we know it today. Wisner’s first car was known as Wisner’s “Buzz Wagon”. Wisner built a total of three cars and two of them are said to have had their final assembly done at the Armstrong plant on St. John Street. Robert (Bert) Armstrong supposedly helped Wisner with those two. One side note is that James Parkhill erected the first gasoline station in Flint during 1905. A recreation of this station was for a time set up at the Sloan museum in Flint.   James Parkhill Flint Garage 1906.  
A closeup of the J.B. Armstrong spring factory, who’s location relative to the Buick factories is shown below.  
The red arrow shows the Armstrong Spring factory in 1910. The Flint river is in the foreground showing a bridge that never existed in this exact configuration. This view is facing west. Armstrong is located on St John street which was notorious in the 19th century logging era for it’s many taverns. In this drawing Armstrong is located in what was called since the ’20s “Cigarette  park” because of trees there that had fruit that resembled cigarettes. It’s official name in later years was the  James Cussan’s park and was a Vietnam war memorial or just Veterans Park. In real life the river curved farther east here (look at 1907 map above).  Just north along the river is the Flint City Water Works. Farther north of the bridge is the Flint Axle Works. On the opposite side of St. Johns is the Flint Varnish Works (future Dupont) and across Hamilton Avenue to the north is the Imperial Wheel plant. South of Hamilton towards the top is the Stewart factories #3 and #4. The zig-zag building on the south side of Hamilton is the original Buick garage #08. It was not built exactly in this shape. Sometimes these drawings would show what was planned but did not happen. Directly north across Hamilton Avenue is the Buick office and factories. North of that along Industrial Avenue is the Weston-Mott axle plant and north of that is Michigan Motors Casting. 
From Don Bent’s book “A Place Called Buick” a great book by the way.
Inside Armstrong.
Inside Armstrong.
Inside Armstrong.
Inside Armstrong.
Short story from an advertisement shown farther above. This and the  photos above  came from Don Bent’s book and was credited to Leroy Cole an older Flint and Buick historian.  
Marvel took over the Armstrong factory in 1921. I’m thinking this is the old Peerless building on Mill St. next door to the old Cornwall Whip Socket plant. Marvel first expanded operations to Flint in 1912 to be near the auto plants there. So they would be in this location for about 8 years. 

Link: 

Durant-Dort Factories East of Saginaw Street.

This is a 1916 article speaking of the outstanding one day production of Marvel.
A 1916 Marvel advertisement showing that they also supplied some carburetors for Ford. 
This view of the old J.B. Armstrong spring plant is after the Marvel Carbureter Company has moved from Mill St. on the east side of the river to this location on the west side of the river. This view was obviously taken from the Dupont factory (old Flint Varnish Works) which is casting it’s shadow onto St. John Street. This view is facing south with the Flint river partially visible in the distance. This is from the book “Fire Department City of Flint 1916. 

Hamilton Avenue And St. John Street.

This is from the book “Fire Department City of Flint 1916
The Wall Street Journal reports on G.M. taking control of Armstrong in early 1924. Don Bent of “A Place Called Buick” says that the purchase took place on January 1, 1924 of the Armstrong Spring on (Hamilton Avenue) which I have not found that location myself and cannot find where it could have been located on Hamilton. ‘Maybe it was a typo’? A quote from Don’s book says “After Armstrong Spring moved from the factory on St. Johns Street., the building was purchased by Marvel Carburetor in 1921. In March, 1928, Marvel bought Schebler Carburetor Company in Indianapolis. In June,1928, Marvel became one of the four companies that formed Borg-Warner. In 1931, all Schebler production was consolidated to Flint. In 1934, it officially became the Marvel-Schebler division of Borg-Warner. The Division was moved to Illinois in 1948”. I have found all this to be correct. He also has Armstrong merging with Buick on May 13, 1932. 
This is the site in the 1920’s. Compare these two maps for locations of  certain  Buick factories discussed below. These maps were taken from the book “Our Days Together At Buick City”.
This map depicts the Buick site at the end.
These enlargements of the north Buick site from around 1947 show the location of the Armstrong Spring Company. This factory was built in 1919 and was used  for making Buick springs until Buick absorbed the company on May 13, 1932. Don Bent, the author of “A Place Called Buick” told me last year that he seemed to remember this building being used as a meat packing plant at some point after Armstrong vacated the premises. In the bottom blow-up  I have numbered the Buick buildings with their final designations at the time of demolition. Factory #10 was the big aluminum foundry built in 1941 and designated as building #20. At the end of the war it became factory #05 for a short time and then got it’s final designation of #10 which most of us still  alive today knew it as. The old  Buick aluminum foundry #30,  which was changed to #03 in 1963 when the old #03 forge plant south of Leith Street was demolished had some of it’s work moved there and became #03, the new spring plant at Buick.  It was built between 1917-1918. Factory #81 got it’s new designation in 1981 and was the old grey iron foundry #70. Factory #81 was the first Buick factory to go with the honor system and do away with time clocks. The old Armstrong building would be removed to make way for the new Buick engine plant #36 built between 1951-1952. Newman Street and Sanford Street would no longer exist after that time and Black Avenue would loose it’s east end. The dirt paths visible to the north-east of the Armstrong building are the remnants of the Tank test track of World War II. Division Street turns into Selby Street at the Stewart Street intersection. Division Street was not a Flint City Street and was only used by Buick. Andrews Street was the one most workers know today because that was the way into the parking lots at the engine plant. That is the old Pere Marquette rail line shown at the right. It would later be the C & O rail road.

This circa 1947 photo of the Buick site from a Leonard Thygesen print shows the location of the Armstrong Spring Company before they were absorbed by General Motors and then Buick.  This is shown in greater detail above.  The 1916 Armstrong addition

Here is the old (at that time) Armstrong factory on Stewart Street. It is shown in the background during construction of Buick factory #10 in 1941. It is sitting directly on the site of the future engine plant #36.